Department of Music Studies

SOUND TECHNOLOGY, MUSIC EDUCATION AND BYZANTINE MUSICOLOGY

Apostolopoulos, Thomas

Echoi and Eastern modal systems

The Byzantine Music or “Psaltiki” and the Greek traditional music in general is part of a wider group of musical traditions of the Eastern Mediterranean which have common musical features. One of the greatest targets of the course is the perception of the theoretical analysis in terms and principles that originated in the ancient Greek music theory, evolved during the Byzantine era and disseminated by the interaction with the neighbouring cultures (Arabs, Persians, Ottomans, Slavs, etc.). The most important and extensive part of the Greek theory is the modality, which, in Byzantine Chant tradition that survived until nowadays, is expressed by the so-called Echos. In this course essential elements of the Theory of Psaltic and the Greek traditional music, as well as a basic description of the principal Echos are taught.

Notes by the professor provided. The course also uses acoustic psaltic examples.

Secular repertory in Byzantine parasemantike

By using the notation of the Byzantine Music, an important volume of secular repertory was set down, apart from the Psaltic pieces. This repertory mostly concerns the so-called Learned (“savant”) Music of Constantinople, in Arabo-persian forms, and so far it counts more or less 4.500 pages of records on the manuscripts of Psaltike, and almost 2.500 pages of printed editions. Moreover, the school ditty repertory was set down towards the end of the 19th century, and a considerable amount of records particularly in the 20th century regards the Greek folk song. This material, except for its importance concerning both the study of the Greek music History and the relation between the Psaltiki and the secular species of music, is nowadays a prominent source for the peripheral tradition of the Eastern Mediterranean, in terms of antiquity and data availability.

In the class there will be a presentation of the most important sources as well as specific issues which come in, such as Historical Musicology, Theory and “Exegesis” of secular compositions from the Old Parasemantice. Notes by the professor are provided.

Psaltic art and Hellenic demotic music

The musical relationship between the two fields has been noted many times  in the past. Having considered briefly the points of contact  between the two areas (language, variety of intervals, modality, synthesis’s techniques, anthropological factors etc.) and the main differences (use of instruments, secular or not character, a variety of local traditions etc.), the depth and the extent of this relationship with the criterion of modal analysis is further explored.

Focusing on basic divisions and branches of Oktaechia, representative pieces of folk music of the major local Greek traditions are respectively modally analyzed.

Relevant audio material and recordings are utilized.

Psaltic art and modern Hellenic urban popular music

A large part of modern Greek urban folk music shows relationship with the Byzantine music. We detect the individual items and points of contact regarding this relationship in a diachronic examination divided in periods by significant changes (Asia Minor disaster, predominance of bouzouki, appearance of special musical currents, such as “rebetiko, artistic, political” song, etc.). By using the tool of modal analysis, we attempt to localize the more closely related repertoire to the core of the Byzantine Oktaechia’s modal characteristics. Use relevant audio material and recordings are being utilized.

Theory and praxis of psaltic art I

 The theoretical principals used by the Psaltic are the main subject being taught at this course, with emphasis on basic terms such as modality, intervals, production and discriminations of multi-modal subcategories, theory of the main Echos. As a fundamental enchiridion is suggested the Mega Theoreticon by Chrysanthos, and complementary notes are provided.

Theory and praxis of psaltic art II

In succession of the course "Theory and praxis of psaltic art I", this course examines thoroughly the modal analysis of the Echos and their Elements. A wide and rich range of examples and references to parallel modal Easterly Systems are used. Notes by the professor are provided.

*

Chrysostomou, Smaragda

Music Education I

The subject covers a wide area within music education. Learning and teaching theories and their application in music teaching represents the core of this subject. Emphasis is placed on the music teacher’s role, as well as the music curriculum and Music’s place in Greek education. Practical examples of lesson planning and music activities for different ages and educational levels are presented throughout the semester.

Teaching approaches include lecture, workshops, projects and collaborative learning in small groups, in order to connect theory with practice throughout the semester.  Group visits to selected schools for music lessons and classroom observations are organized whenever it is possible.  

This class is mandatory for the acquisition of the pedagogical and teaching accreditation.

Music Education II

This subject includes an overview of music teaching methods from ancient times until today with an emphasis on 20th and 21st century approaches. More particularly the methods of Kodaly, Dalcroze and Orff are described in detail with practical examples and activities. The importance and impact of various music teaching methods throughout the centuries for today’s music classroom are explored.

Teaching approaches include lecture, workshops, projects and collaborative learning in small groups, in order to connect theory with practice throughout the semester.  Group visits to selected schools for music lessons and classroom observations are organized whenever it is possible.  

This class is mandatory for the acquisition of the pedagogical and teaching accreditation.

Integrative approaches in music teaching

The contemporary trend for integration in teaching and learning is explored through theoretical and philosophical views as well as practical applications in Greece and the world. Different opinions, problems, strengths and weaknesses are identified with specific examples of models and applications of integration in music and the other arts in USA, UK and Europe. Particular emphasis is placed on the current curriculum for music in primary and secondary education in Greece and its integrative characteristics.

Teaching approaches include lecture, workshops, projects and collaborative learning in small groups, in order to connect theory with practice throughout the semester.  Group visits to selected schools for music lessons and classroom observations are organized whenever it is possible.  

This class is mandatory for the acquisition of the pedagogical and teaching accreditation.

Teaching practice I

This is one of the two subjects through which students complete their teaching practice in schools. During the fall semester students follow a number of obligatory classes at the University where they review concepts and issues related to music teaching and learning through practical applications. They develop practical skills related to lesson planning, observation, reflection, planning for creative music activities, etc. This subject is assessed through a literature review-based essay.

This class is mandatory for the acquisition of the pedagogical and teaching accreditation.

Teaching practice II

This is the second subject that students need in order to complete their teaching practice in schools. Parallely to the University classes, students select the schools in which they will complete their observation and teaching. In collaboration with the University professor and selected music teachers/mentors in public and private schools, they are obliged to complete 9 hours observation and 1 hour teaching in a primary school, 9 hours observation and 1 hour teaching in a secondary school and 9 hours observation and 1 hour teaching in a special Music School.

Students are assessed through a portfolio which includes observation forms (for each hour of observation in each school), reflection journal for each hour of observation, lesson plan and self-assessment).

This class is mandatory for the acquisition of the pedagogical and teaching accreditation.

*

Kritikou, Flora

Notation of the chanting art

The course aims to the presentation of the Byzantine Notation from the mid-10th century to the present day. After the reference to the relevant literature, the following units are discussed: Terminology; the descriptive character of the Byzantine notation; the periods and different evolutional phases of the notation; the process and the criteria of periodization; first period (950-117): early Byzantine notations (Ekphonetic notation, Theta notation, Chartres et Coislin notations, Slavonic notations); second period (1177-1670): Middle Byzantine notation; third period (1670-1814): Transitional phase of the Byzantine notation: from the Middle to the Analytical notation; fourth period (1814-present day): the so called New Analytical notation; other notational types. The course is supported by presentation and study of several examples of Byzantine and post-Byzantine musical manuscripts.

Palaeography of Byzantine notation I

The course aims to the study of Byzantine notations from the mid-10th century onwards and of the various stages of their evolutional process. The following units are presented: Byzantine notations symbolic character; philosophy and principals; terminology; origin of the Byzantine notations; Byzantine and Western neumatic notations; Early Byzantine Notations (ca. 950-1177): Lectionary or ‘ekphonetic’ notation, Chartres/Coislin notation, Theta notation, Slavonic notations; characteristics-evolution-transcriptions. Middle Byzantine notation (1177- ca. 1670): From ‘adiastematic’ to ‘diastematic’ notation; Byzantines’ teaching booklet (‘Protheoria’); Middle Notation descriptive character; interval signs/great signs - formulae; Byzantine treatises.

Palaeography of Byzantine notation II

The course focuses mainly on the Middle Byzantine Notation studying the following units: Byzantines’ “oral” parts of the musical teaching (interpretation of the formulae, modes); the formulaic character of the Byzantine chant; the relation between the shape, the name and the function of the formulae and the liturgical text. The phenomenon of ‘kallopismos’ (embellishment/re-treatment) of chants as a renewal of the Byzantine chants (15th-17th c.); evolution of the Middle notation through the phenomenon of embellishment; study and comparison of the evolutional phases of embellished chants based on musical manuscripts of the period. Transitional notation of ‘exēgēsis’ (ca. 1670-1814); evolutional phases; relation between different ‘exēgēseis’; “exēgēsis” and transcription.

Byzantine and Latin Chant relations

The course focusses on the interrelation between Byzantine and Latin Church music. The following units are discussed: Byzantine and Latin modal systems: convergence and divergence points. The liturgical-musical manuscripts and the related Offices in Byzantium and the West. Byzantine influences on the Latin liturgical Chant (South Italy). Influences of the Latin Chant on the Byzantine one in Venetian ruled areas (Crete and Cyprus): the historical frame; local tradition and ritual; religious identities; compositional and liturgical practices; liturgical texts; compositional features; specific ritual practices.

Seminar: Specific issues of Byzantine musicology

The seminar is related to the course intitled "Byzantine and Latin Chant relations". Several groups of Cretan liturgical compositions are examined in the frame of this seminar course, in order to study, investigate and understand the specificities of the Cretan repertory. The seminar is intended for students to practice the research methodology through limited groups of the sui generis Cretan compositions. It is separated in the following units : finding, gathering and assesement of the relevant literature; study of the sources – clustering of the compositions in smaller groups according to the composer and the period; transcriptions and analysis of the related compositions; commentary; writing a limited essay based on the research accomplished.

*

Andreopoulou, Areti

Introduction to music technology

“Introduction to Music Technology” is an introductory course in the specialization of Music Technology. It introduces students to all scientific topics traditionally treated in this field and provides them with the necessary knowledge and skills. Through this course students are exposed to the following topics: analysis of audio signals, the anatomy of the human vocal and hearing systems, the MIDI and OSC protocols, basic principles of sound recording and music production, production of electronic music scores etc.

Analysis, processing, and synthesis of audio signals

This course offers an overview of all basic elements of sound anatomy, digital audio signal analysis and processing, and sound synthesis techniques. The first part of the course (Audio Analysis) examines the main methodologies of audio signal analysis through the use of specialized software. In the Processing part, common audio signal processing techniques (sound effects) are thoroughly discussed before being put into use.  The last part of the course (Sound Synthesis) exposes students to various sound synthesis techniques, commonly used for the creation of unique timbres.

Introduction to music programming

The course is an introduction to the basic principles of music programming taught through the Max / MSP programming environment. During this course, students acquire algorithmic problem-solving skills and learn how to program their own music / sound routines. Upon successful completion of the course, students will be able to program algorithms for composing, editing and reproduction of multi-channel audio signals.

Room acoustics

The course studies the response of closed spaces to audio signals. It teaches students how to identify / predict potential acoustic problems, find solutions, and optimize the listener’s experience in interior listening spaces. It introduces basic acoustic principles and teaches the efficient use of simulation software for the prediction of room acoustics. Upon successful completion, students will be able to identify potential acoustic deficiencies in indoor and suggest improvement actions, based on each room’s preferred use.

Seminar: Music and audio interactions in video games

The seminar concerns students who have selected of Music Technology as a specialization in their studies. It touches upon issues of human-computer interaction, data sonification and audification, sound localization, and virtual, augmented, and mixed reality.

*

Georgaki, Anastasia

Physics and music acoustics

Physics and Music Acoustics is an introductory course in understanding the physical structure of sound, its objective and subjective characteristics, as well as the acoustic phenomena that govern the production of sound in musical instruments. The course aims at introducing students to the basic concepts of oscillations and soundwaves through the understanding of oscillations in music systems (string, pipe, membrane, rod) and acoustic phenomena that govern the propagation of sound in space. Finally, the course examines basic chapters of Psychoacoustics and Room Acoustics.

Introduction to electroacoustic music

The course presents basic aesthetic aspects of electroacoustic music from the middle of the 20th century to the present day. It discusses the technological means of each period, the composers, and analyzes outstanding works from the repertoire. It focuses on modern audio editing techniques, enabling students to become familiar with popular software for creating and editing sound and gain hands-on experience, and a basic understanding of electronic music. Upon successful completion of the course, students will acquire the theoretical tools for understanding the experimental electronic music of the 20th and 21st centuries. They will also be able to use this knowledge towards the creation of contemporary musical works.

Seminar: Vocal singing acoustics and technologies

The seminar Vocal Singing Technologies is a course where basic chapters of anatomy, physiology and acoustic function of the singing voice are being taught along with technologies that support the analysis, processing and composition of the vocal signal. Basic chapters of recording, processing, analysis, composition and interaction technologies of the vocal singer are examined. We also examine the related literature in an interdisciplinary manner: evolutionary musicology, and aesthetics. The course material aims to introduce students to the basic concepts of the acoustic function of the voice in singing based on the processing and synthesis of the vocal signal. Finally, we refer to the perception of the subjective characteristics of the voice based on the science of Psychoacoustics.

Introduction to creative technology

This course introduces techniques of processing and synthesis of audio material through the theoretical framework of acoustic ecology and the composition of soundscapes. In the creative part, students are invited to compose their own original work with a specific theme through a symbolic sound approach of concepts, situations and theories.

Music radioart production

In this course, theoretical and practical approaches are developed for the creation of an original independent radio show with musicological content. Techniques for the architecture of music shows and radio dramas are also examined in terms of speech, voice selection, music selection, interview content, music investment techniques, and the emergence of a particular musical style. During the course, students are introduced to techniques of sound recording, processing, balancing and preparation of the broadcast material using the special facilities of the studio 310 of the Department.

*

Peikidis, Ioannis

Introduction to sound recording I

The course presents the types of microphones according to how they convert sound into electricity and their polar patterns. Stereo recording techniques with laboratory practice are presented at the laboratory’s studio. The types of loudspeakers and the types of boxes that they are placed in to become speakers are presented. The course material aims to introduce students to the basic concepts of sound recording, through its main tools, microphones and speakers and their use. The aim of the course is for students to understand the specifics of microphones and speakers, and to use them through an aesthetic criterion depending on the type of music they will want to record.

Music industry

The course Music Industry presents the evolution of music creation based on the evolution of sound technology in the field of discography and the diffusion of music information. These developments over the last 100 years have created an ecosystem of industrial dimensions, exploiting music creation for the benefit of creators and record companies. The course focuses on music industry history, copyright, music networks, music dissemination and retrieval technologies and new trends in the music industry in the post-digital age.

Introduction to sound recording II

The course Sound Recording II presents advanced sound recording techniques both in the studio and for live music with laboratory practice, as well as processing, mixing and mastering for a complete and comprehensive knowledge of the subjects of sound recording. The course material aims to deepen students in special concepts and techniques of sound recording. The aim of the course is the understanding by the students of the special techniques and the effective use of them for a perfect aesthetic result.

*

Anagnostopoulou, Christina

Music in the community

Music in the Community is concerned with the act of “musicking” and how this can be used in contexts of vulnerable populations. Students learn how to be musicians and facilitators in such challenging contexts. Apart from the classes taking place at the University, students also get practical experience in community placements such as hospitals, psychiatric units, rehabilitation, refugees, and various other minorities’ NGOs. In the theoretical part of the course, special topics in music psychology and neuroscience are discussed, along with elements of music therapy and psychiatry (in collaboration with the Aiginiteion psychiatric hospital). In the University we also work on practical music skills and directions on how to work in large community groups, as well as providing the appropriate support for all the student placements. The module is assessed in two ways: assessment in the placement (50%), and a written report on the whole experience, grounded with appropriate theory (50%).

Introduction to music psychology

This compulsory 2nd-year module examines the field of music psychology through the lens of systematic musicology, which has been taught during the 1st year. We firstly introduce the science of psychology and its research methods, we then talk about music perception, music cognition, and music and emotion, and we highlight relations between music analysis and music psychology. We finally have two or three guest workshops, one in music therapy, one in performance anxiety and one in group improvisation. The module is assessed with weekly reports during semester time (50%) as well as a written examination at the end (50%).

Seminar: Music and artificial intelligence (Computational musicology)

This seminar is offered primarily to music technology students, but other students are also welcome to attend. It examines the field of computational musicology through the use of AI representations and techniques. Some topics covered include an introduction to AI, music knowledge representations, computational music analysis algorithms, classifications (mood/genre) as well as the novel area of computational creativity. Although the module has a theoretical slant, students are free to choose the type of final submission, which can be also practical: Apart from the essay, students can create a portfolio of analyses, write some code / pseudo-code for computational music analysis procedures or any combination of these. The actual topic for each student is free and has to be agreed in advance with the module convener.

Theories of computational music analysis of the 20th/21st centuries

This module focuses on seminal theories and methods of music analysis of the last century, such as Schenkerian analysis, Nattiez’ semiotic analysis, the Generative Theory of Tonal Music, as well as Pitch Class Set Theory. Students get to know these theories and then apply them in various works of different eras, but mainly contemporary ones. There is a lot of critical discussion on each theory, as well as the general field of music analysis, and its purpose. If time permits more views are presented such as mathematical music theory, and others. The module is assessed with 50% weekly exercises and 50% a take-home exam.

Cognitive musicology – Music language and the mind

Cognitive sciences can generally be defined as the sciences who study the mind, the brain, and in general the nature of thinking. This module has thus a multi-disciplinary character and draws material from psychology, philosophy, neurosciences, AI and linguistics. It includes various topics from music cognition, but strong emphasis is given on the parallelism between music and language in many different levels of description. We also discuss the term cognitive musicology as one of the main sectors of systematic musicology. The module is assessed with weekly reports (50%) during term-time, and with a final exam or essay at the end (50%). It is open to all students in the School of Philosophy.