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Department of Music Studies



Sector of Historical and Systematic Musicology


Title:Special database of Byzantine music manuscripts

Scientific supervisor: Ioannis Papathanassiou

Research team: George Roussopoulos, Nikolaos Boukas

Description: This is a Special Bibliographic Database of Byzantine Music Manuscripts, a modern bibliographic tool that focuses on finding photos of music codices. It includes bibliographic entries that are exclusively related to Byzantine music. The research is not limited to city libraries, but it will embrace the overall global production of relevant scientific papers. The publication of the Special Library Database will be in electronic form in order to facilitate the immediate search for multiple data between the bibliographic entries on behalf of the user. The Special Database of Byzantine Manuscripts consists of two main parts. The first includes bibliography with the overall production of scientific books related to Byzantine music until 2011. In the second part, researchers can locate published photos of Byzantine music manuscripts included in the bibliography of the first part. In this way, the researcher will be able to have visual access to a handwritten sample of a manuscript.



Title:Study of Organology and reconstruction of findings of music instruments (helēs-flute-harp) from the "Tomb of the poet" – Daphne, Attiki

Scientific supervisor: Stelios Psaroudakis

Participants: Christos Terzis (Postdoctoral Researcher)

Funding: Ioannis Latsis Foundation

Description: The primary purpose of this research is the study of the remains of three musical instruments of the 5th century BC, found in 1981 in a tomb in the area of ​​Daphne, Attiki and are kept in the Archaeological Museum of Piraeus. These are: a) the sound-board, an arm and the string of a wooden harp of the triangle type, b) the bony shells of a turtle shell, which was the lyre sound-board of the turtle type and c) one of the two stems of its wooden flute. double type. The second goal was to propose the restoration of instruments, in order to explore their technology, operation and technique. The aim is to share the findings of the study and reconstruction of the instruments with the society, through educational programs and posts on our archaeomusicological website.



Title:Reconstruction of the Daphne Triangle: a First Approach

Scientific supervisor: Stelios Psaroudakis

Participants: Christos Terzis (Postdoctoral Researcher)

Funding: Research Programs for faculty members

Description: Purchase of equipment and materials for the reconstruction of one of the three instruments found in the "Poet's Tomb" in Daphne, Attiki. The project aimed to the accomplishment and control the reconstruction of the instrument in a primary stage. The instrument has since been used in educational programs in schools, as well as in the context of relevant lectures and musical performances of surviving music fragments of the Antiquity.



Title:Collaboration with the international research program RIPM

Scientific supervisor: Aikaterini Romanou

Research team: Ioannis Foulias, George Vlastos, Tassos Kolydas, Sofia Kontosi, Manto Pyliarou

Funding: Research programs for faculty members

Description: The Department of Music Studies of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens has been collaborating since March 2007 with the international research program RIPM (Répertoire International de la Presse Musicale / Retrospective Index to Music Periodicals, 1800-1950). RIPM is one of the four international collaborating music main bibliographic organizations, along with RISM (Répertoire International des Sources Musicales), RILM (Répertoire International de Littérature Musicale) and RIdIM (Répertoire International d'Iconographie Musicale), and was established in order to provide access to the music periodicals of the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries. The object of the Greek representatives of RIPM is the study, indexing, documentation and publication of the Greek music periodicals of the period that covers this program (Music Efimeris, Formigx, Apollon, Ethniki Mousa, Orpheus, Music, Music Inspection, New Forminx , Musical Chronicles, Music World, Music Life, Music Movement) on the website of RIPM.


Sector of Ethnomusicology and Cultural Anthropology


Title: Intercommunal Musical Geographies of Late Ottoman Istanbul

Principal Investigator: Panagiotis Poulos

Partner Institutions: Ethnomusicology and Cultural Anthropology Laboratory, Department of Music Studies, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - Department of Music Science and Art, University of Macedonia - Department of Greek Philology, Democritus University of Thrace - Department of History-Archaeology, University of Patras 

Funding: “First Call for H.F.R.I. Research Projects to support Faculty members and Researchers and the procurement of high-cost research equipment grant”

Description: This research project maps and analyses the fields of intercommunal musical interaction and/or exclusion in late Ottoman Istanbul. Focusing on informal modes of sociality, spaces of public musical performance and the field of music publishing the project explores the collective networks and individual itineraries within the shifting urban environment of late Ottoman Istanbul that constituted and sustained intercommunal musical relations. The overall aim of the project is to address those elusive intermediary spaces formed by the interplay of music, text and space in the context of late Ottoman intecommunal relations and to foreground on the one hand their potentiality as “thresholds of emancipation” in major social and political transitions, and on the other hand their role as means for vouchsafing continuity.


Title: Histories, Spaces and Heritages at the transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Greek state

Scientific CoordinatorsPanagiotis Poulos and Elias Kolovos

Partner Institutions: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - École Française d’ Athènes - SonorCities, Heritage Management Organization

Funding: École Française d’ Athènes

Description: This project explores the historical trajectories of urban space from the Ottoman Empire to the modern Greek State. The histories and/or ‘stories’ of this shifting urban space are studied in their intersensorial dimension, highlighting the dynamic interplay between materiality and its multifaceted conceptualizations. Starting from the 19th century, Ottoman urban space, which traditionally comprised bordering and/or overlapping social and spatial units (parishes, neighborhoods etc.) that formed a dense network of public buildings and spaces (mosques, churches, marketplaces, shrines, cemeteries etc.), was already in a process of intensive transformation. This major change that Ottoman urban centers experienced was a result of the reforms and the broader modernization programme that was implemented by the Ottoman state. In the post-Ottoman world the abovementioned spatial units have been erased or only partially preserved and developed into contemporary lieux de memoire, heavily influenced by key concepts of modernity, such as ‘antiquity’, ‘monument’, and ‘cultural heritage’. Although, in their current status, ‘Ottoman monuments’ merely constitute fragmented traces of the past, they often turn into fields of ideological and political debate, both on a local and trans-local level, highlighting the active role of recent past in influencing the current public sphere.


Title: Western Art Music at the Time of Crisis: An Interdisciplinary Study of Contemporary Greek Culture and European Integration

Scientific CoordinatorPavlos Kavouras

Collaborating Professor: Anastasios Hapsoulas

Partner Institutions: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - Royal Holloway, University of London

Funding: Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs - “Education and Life Long Learning” Program - “Excellence II”

Description: The project is the first interdisciplinary study of contemporary musical life in Greece that focuses on Western art music and its interface with other spheres of Greek culture, aiming to scrutinize questions regarding European integration. It concentrates on the post-2000 period, which coincides with the phase of economic and socio-cultural crisis in Greece, and analyzes a wide range of musical ontologies and agents (musicians, music halls, performances, audiences, media, bodies of culture) as well as their interaction and discourses.


Title: Diesis: Comprehensive Design and Implementation of a Networked Music Performance System

Scientific CoordinatorPanagiotis Tsakalidis

Collaborating Professor: Vassiliki Lalioti

Partner Institutions: University of Crete - National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - Athens University of Economics and Business - Technical Institution of Crete

Funding: Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs - “Education and Life Long Learning” Program - “Thalis”

Description: The objective of the proposed project is to advance the current state-of-the-art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) systems. These systems allow geographically distributed musicians to collaborate in real-time through computer networks. NMP systems have the potential to advance music creativity, education, and cross-cultural interaction. It has been experimentally shown that the time delays of the information exchange (music, video) among the musicians using such systems must be an order of magnitude lower than in teleconferencing systems. Consequently, NMP systems are currently implemented for research purposes and are not widely available to musicians.


Title: Video Life Stories of Migrants

Scientific CoordinatorPavlos Kavouras

Host Institution: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Funding: Ministry of Interior - EIF - Annual Program 2011

Description: The project aimed at the production of 20 short films focused on four fundamental aspects of daily life: family, work, art (music, dance, theatre), and the idea of “here and there”, i.e. the perception of the relation between the society of origin and the hosting society. All of these films were created collectively by 20 migrants, divided into five ethnic groups (Egyptians, Albanians, Indians, Nigerians, and Ukrainians), who live in Greece and have trained together with 20 Greek citizens in the techniques of documentary and participatory video. The project shows the dynamics of cross-cultural exchange through memory and life stories, highlights the migrant identity in flux by using a common artistic expression and contributes to a new understanding of social integration by putting emphasis on joint training and the creative use of audiovisual art forms. 


Title: Music and Minorities: An Ethnomusicological Approach of Indian Minority in Greece

Scientific CoordinatorPavlos Kavouras

Collaborating Professors: Anastasios Hapsoulas - Maria Papapavlou

Host Institution: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Funding: Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs - “Education and Life Long Learning” Program - “Heraclites II”

Description: The project aims at the scientific approach to music and culture of Indian immigrants in Greece. It is part of a broader framework for exploring issues of music and minorities from an ethnomusicological and cultural-anthropological point of view.


Title: Cretan Musician’s Museum

Scientific CoordinatorPavlos Kavouras

Collaborating Professors: Rena Loutzaki - Anastasios Hapsoulas

Host Institution: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Funding: Municipality of Kissamos - Region of Crete

Description: The project aims to create an innovative thematic museum, where the old folklore and rescue perspective is abandoned and modern aesthetic, technological and scientific museum trends are followed. It focuses on cultural networks, oral histories and life stories with an emphasis on the relationship between music and society, art and culture.


Title: Internship of Students of the Faculty of Music Studies

Scientific CoordinatorPavlos Kavouras

Host Institution: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Funding: Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs - “Education and Life Long Learning” Program - “Internship”

Description: This program contributes to the connection of the provided education with the labor market, creating opportunities that help student strengthening theier professional skills and social integration. The internship takes place in selected institutions dealing with music and culture in the wider region of Athens.


Title: Support and Development of the Educational and Research Projects of the Ethnomusicology and Cultural Anthropology Laboratory

Scientific CoordinatorPavlos Kavouras

Host Institution: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Funding: National Bank of Greece

Description: The program includes a) creating a thematic portal for the support of the Laboratory of Ethnomusicology and Cultural Anthropology activities, b) implementing scientific research in ethnomusicology and cultural anthropology, and c) strengthening the Laboratory's educational profile.


TitleCEMMENTI - Canada Exchanges with the Mediterranean: Migration Experiences and their Impact on Nationalism, Trans-Nationalism and Identity

Scientific CoordinatorPavlos Kavouras

Collaborating Professor: Rena Loutzaki

Partner Institutions: University of Bologna - National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - York University - Trent University - University of Prince Edward Island - University of Malta

Funding: European Union - Canada Programme for Cooperation in Higher Education and Vocational Training

Description: The project is exclusively a student mobility program from Europe to Canada and vice versa. Students enroll in the host university (York University, Trent University and the University of Prince Edward Island) and take a six-month course that corresponds to the subjects of CEMMENTI.


Title: Contemporary Theory, Research and Teaching of Music Science and its Application in Greece

Scientific CoordinatorPavlos Kavouras

Host Institution: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Funding: Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs - “Education and Life Long Learning” Program - “Pythagoras II”

Description: The aim of this research was the acquisition of information concerning theory, research and teaching of musicology in contemporary Greece. The program produced various outputs such as: a) original knowledge in the fields of musicology and cultural theory, b) construction of a database presenting international trends in musicology, c) creation of web links with other relevant databases of modern musicology and d) proposal of a new framework for organizing music studies regarding theory, research and teaching of mysicology in Greece.


Title: Music in the Muslim Minority of Thrace

Scientific CoordinatorPavlos Kavouras

Collaborating Institutions: “Friends of Music Society” - National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Funding: “Friends of Music Society” - Stavros Niarchos Foundation

Description: The research was conducted in the Muslim minority of Thrace, applying comparative and interdisciplinary methodologies. Being aware of the interpretive nature of all aspects of music culture, the research team tried to highlight the basic dimensions of music performance of the specific cultural group.


Sector of Sound Technology, Music Education and Byzantine Musicology


Title: SONICOM: Transforming auditory-based social interaction and communication in AR/VR

Funding: HORIZON 2020

Entities: Imperial College London, Sorbonne University, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Univeristy of Milan, LabMAT (NKUA), University of Malaga, University of Glasgow, Dreamwaves, Reactify, USOUND

Description: SONICOM is a European research collaboration. It involves an international team of 10 research institutions and creative tech companies from 6 European countries. The partnership includes researchers and AR/VR experts from seven research/academic institutions and three small-medium enterprises.


Title: Musical Bounce Back: Promoting the role of women in music and connecting for a new pedagogy

Funding: Erasmus+

Entities: PIANO AND CO, LICA, Laboratoire d’Intelligence Collective et Artificielle (France), Organisation for European Programmes and Cultural Relations (Cyprus), Yerevan State Conservatory after Komitas (Armenia), LabMAT (Greece), Casa do Professor (Portugal)

Description: Musical Bounce Back is funded by the Erasmus+ Programme and is a new collaborative project in a time of health crisis. The project aims to promote innovative educational creations and applications and raise awareness of musicians and teachers on the issues of the role of women composers. Participants will be involved in an artistic creation process by collaborating through the LoLa (Low Latency) system.


Title: Sacred sounds, sacred spaces

Funding: CIVIS

Entities: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, University of Tübingen and the University of Glasgow

Description: This CIVIS summer school entitled “Sacred Sounds, Sacred Spaces” is a highly innovative educational module that explores the interplay between music, sound and space in relation to the experience of sacredness in historical and synchronic perspectives. It is organized jointly by the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, the University of Tübingen and the University of Glasgow and will take place at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.


Title: Kolokotronis Memoirs: An interactive theatrical documentary

Funding: ELIDEK "200 Years since the Greek Revolution"

Scientific Director: Anastasia Georgaki

NKUA Research Team: Orestis Karamanlis, George Dedousis, Klio Fanouraki, Kaiti Diamantakou

External Collaborators: Marianna Lampiri, Giannis Stratakis, Ifigenia Spiliotopoulou.

Entities: Laboratory of Music Acoustics and Technology

Description: Coordination of the program in context of the action "200 years since the Greek Revolution", which includes an interactive theatrical documentary with innovative technologies, based on the memoirs of Theodoros Kolokotronis.


Title: Training Platform on Educational Voice Support at School (ASMA)

Funding: ELIDEK "Research projects to support faculty members"

Scientific Director: Anastasia Georgaki

Research Team: Areti Andreopoulou, Iakovos Steinhauer, Sofia Stavropoulou, Natalia Kotsani, George Dedousis, Vangelis Angelakis, Costas Katsantonis

Entities: Laboratory of Music Acoustics and Technology

Description: ASMA’s objective is an original and innovative research on social-aesthetic significance of cultivating the singing voice of primary education students, as well as the development of a modern platform of interactive software applications to support the teaching task of music teachers. This platform will be developed with characteristics of gamification, experiential learning and visualization, which will lead towards the desired results through both learning and entertaining activities and procedures, based on a collaborative approach. We aspire that this platform of interactive tools, on its completion, will be included in Greek primary schools’ curriculum.


Title: In the Traces of Travelers/Browsers/Tourists (TRACCE)

Funding: Program "Research-Innovate-Create"

Scientific Director NKUA: Anastasia Georgaki

NKUA Research Team: Areti Andreopoulou, George Dedousis, Costas Katsantonis

Entities: University of the Aegean, Laboratory of Music Acoustics and Technology, TEI of Crete, Aikaterini Laskaridis Foundation, Honest Partners

Description: TRACCE project has the objective to design and develop an innovative diffuse platform of cultural routes, for different computing devices (mobile, landline, etc.), utilizing the cultural reserve of the travel literature, the digital material of modern travelers and modern technologies of information science and communication. The platform that will be created will offer cultural interpretation services, which will combine a certain area visit together with the acquaintance of the respective historically recorded and modern tourist experience.


Title: The liturgical chant in Venetian Crete during the 16th and 17th c.: Cultural transfers and shaping of identities in the Mediterranean space

Funding: École Française d’ Athènes

Scientific supervisor: Flora Kritikou

Research team: Nikos Maliaras, Vassa Kontouma, Fanch Thoraval, Tassos Kolydas, Vassiles Salteris, Agelos Mitses

Partner Institutions: Department of Music Studies, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - École Française d’ Athènes - École Pratique des Hautes Études-PSL (France) - Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)

Description: The main object of this research project is the interdisciplinary study of a corpus of liturgical settings composed in Venetian ruled Crete during the 16th and 17th centuries. The research focusses on the study and elaboration of this music material in order to point out the elements of influence of the Western polyphonic ecclesiastical chant on Byzantine composition, to describe the interaction between these two musical cultures and to determine the process of adaptation and adoption of Western polyphonic elements by Cretan composers. A parallel aspect of this project is the consideration and the identification of the common liturgical practice in the frame of which this repertory has been created and used. Through the study of the related archival, historical and liturgical sources the Cretan liturgical repertory is also examined as a component of the wider process  of shaping of identities in Crete of the Renaissance period. 


Title: Europe in C

Funding: Εrasmus+

Scientific Director: Anastasia Georgaki

NKUA Collaborators: Costas Katsantonis, George Dedousis

Collaborating Entities: Conservatoire de Dunkerque (FR) - Conservatorium van Oostende (BE) - Rostock University of Music and Drama (DE) - Conservatorio di Musica Giuseppe Tartini (IT) - Cité de la Musique (FR) - Conservatoire de Martigues (FR) - Music Program/Class CHAM at Collège Longchamp (FR) - LabMAT: Laboratory of Music Acoustics and Technology (GR) - Consortium GARR broadband network (IT)

Description: A collaboration project between six (6) countries, on the subject of network performance in contemporary music. Five (5) online concerts were organized in different European cities, featuring 30 musicians from 5 different European countries (Italy, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece) to perform the piece "In C", by Terry Riley, the minimalist American composer. For the Greek concert, fifteen 15 students of the University Department performed on classical, traditional and electronic instruments.


Title: DO.RE.MAT. Decrease Obstacles RElated to MAthematics Teaching

Funding: LLP Programme - Leonardo da Vinci

Scientific Director NKUA: Anastasia Georgaki

NKUA Scientific Team: Anastasia Georgaki, George Kosteletos

Collaborating Entities: Laboratory of Music Acoustics and Technology, University of Bologna, Latvian Ministry of Education and Science

Description: Development of a Mathematics teaching system, via Music, for students 15 to 16 years old. The implementation of this system is designed as a step-by-step process, which allows for the DO.RE.MAT method to be transferred into different educational environments.


Title: IMuscica

Funding: EU Horizon 2020

Scientific Director: Anastasia Georgaki

Collaborating Entities: Institute of Language and Speech Processing (ILSP – Athena Research and Innovation Center), Laboratory of Music Acoustics and Technology, UC Limburg, Ellinogermaniki Agogi, IRCAM, LEOPOLY, Cabrilog

Περιγραφή: This is a European Program for the development of digital tools and practices in education, towards creative learning and teaching  of Mathematics and Physics, through Music, in the context of STEM education.


Title: Experimental Archaeomusicology, training on the reconstruction and usage of Ancient Greek Musical Instruments (HERMES)

Funding: Stavros Niarhos Foundation

Department of Music Scientific Team: Anastasia Georgaki, Kostas Katsandonis

Collaborating Entities: NKUA Department of Informatics and Telecommunications, Department of Literature, Laboratory of Music Acoustics and Technology

Description: HERMES project has the mission of highlighting the music and musical instruments of Greek antiquity, in Greece and abroad, and utilizing them in research, education and the reconstruction of ancient Greek sound in modern cultural creation.


Title: DIESI: Comprehensive Design and Implementation of a Networked Music Performance System MusiNet)

Funding: Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" - Thalis

Collaborating Entities: University of Crete-Coordinator, NKUA, ASOE and TEI of Crete.

Scientific Director: Panagiotis Tsakalidis.

NKUA Scientific team: Alexandros Eleftheriadis, Christina Anagnostopoulou, Vasiliki Lalioti

Description: The purpose of DIESI is to propose solutions which promote the contemporary generation of Internet Music Performance Systems (SMEs). These systems allow musicians, who are far away from each other, to collaborate and perform in joint music concerts, via telecommunications networks, as if they were in the same space.


Title: COINVENT - Concept Invention Theory

Funding: European Comission, FP7

Research team member of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki: Christina Anagnostopoulou

Description: The aim of the project is to construct a cognitive-inspired computational typical model of creating new concepts (concept invention) based on a systematic mathematical theory of concepts. This model is based on Goguen's Unified Concept Theory and on ideas by cognitive and social concepts (conceptual blending) to create new concepts, and will then be applied in to two areas: mathematics and music. This typical model can be utilized in the creation of computer systems that support genuine creative processes in science and art.


Title: MIROR - Musical Interaction Reying on Reflexion

Scientific Team: Christina Anagnostopoulou (Laboratory of Music Acoustics and Technology, Department of Music Studies, NKUA), Angeliki Triantaphyllaki (Postdoctoral Full time Researcher, Department of Music Studies, NKUA), Angelos Pikrakis (Τμήμα Πληροφορικής, Piraeus University).

Scientific Director NKUA: Christina Anagnostopoulou

Collaborating Entities: University of Bologna (Coordinators), University of Goteborg, NKUA (Department of Music Studies), University of Genoa, University of Exeter, Sony Computer Science Lab, Compedia Israel.

Funding: European Comission, FP7 ICT

Description: The ultimate goal of MIROR, this three-year research program, was to encourage autonomous musical expression and musical creativity in pre-school and early primary education, with the use of software applications for music composition and improvisation. The main objective of the program was to test a certain music software application, which functions as an advanced cognitive "teacher", aspiring to promote the development of specific skills in young children in the field of musical improvisation and composition, without requiring any prior musical knowledge as perquisite for using with the software program.


Title: Comparative Computer Music Analysis of Crete Folk Songs

Scientific Team: Christina Anagnostopoulou (Laboratory of Music Acoustics and Technology, Department of Music Studies, NKUA), Markos Dragoumis (Centre of Asia Minor Studies, Musical Folklore Archives Melpo Merlie), Darrell Conkridros Sakklinis (City University London), Petros Saridakis.

Scientific Director: Christina Anagnostopoulou

External collaborators: Rafael Pylarinos, Iason Antonopoulos, Maria Chnaraki, Anastasios Hapsoulas

Funding: John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation, Research Project 2009

Description: This program includes the digitization of various genres of Cretan Music (eg kontilies, sirta, lullabies, lamentations) in musical symbolic representations and the comparative musical analysis of these data using machine learning methods and, in particular, the discovery of musical characteristic patterns (pattern discovery) for each genre and each part of Crete.


Title: Empowerment of teachers/trainers via online collaborative LMS

Funding: LLP Programme - Leonardo da Vinci

Collaborating Entities: Laboratory of Music Acoustics and Technology, ΕΕΜΑΠΕ, Europroject Consult, Kuressaare Ametikool, KPM Lithuania, nSoft Lithuania, Northumberland Park Community School

Description: The strategic goal of the program is to develop innovative content, services, pedagogical methods and practices for ICT-based Music Education, which responds to issues of high educational priority. Information and communication technologies (ICT) are powerful tools for improving quality and facilitating access to education and training. The development of innovative ICT solutions to promote better education and training throughout the training of Music Education teachers is a key goal of this lifelong learning program.


Title: The musical manuscripts conserved in the Library of the Sinai Saint’s Catherine Monastery: A detailed catalogue

Funding: A. S. Onassis Foundation (2004-2006) / Sinai Foundation at Athens (2016-2022)

Scientific Supervisor: Flora Kritikou

Partner Institutions: Department of Music Studies, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - The Sinai Foundation at Athens

Description: The project consists of the recording and detailed description of the Byzantine musical manuscripts conserved in the Library of Saint Catherine’s monastery in Sinai. The recording of such a great collection is particularly important for the development of the field of Byzantine Musicology, as it offers new evidence based on the sources. This kind of research highlights unknown biographical information about Byzantine composers, even unknown persons and their works, kinds of notation and a great number of related elements.